Spectators with umbrellas line the road as groups of soldeirs and nurses carrying banners walk past

Richmond WW1 Diary 28 June 1919

Peace treaty signed at Versailles | The treaty of Versailles was signed between Germany and the Allies – separate treaties were negotiated between the Allies and other Central Powers nations. The death toll of the war ran into millions, with millions more wounded. Civilian populations continued to suffer from deprivation and disease, and homes, agriculture,…

Richmond WW1 Diary 1 November 1918

Czechoslovakia & Hungary declare independence |   At the start of the war, the Central Powers comprised Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Bulgaria joined the alliance in 1915 and became the first to surrender in September 1918. Following the Ottoman surrender at the end of October, it was clear the end of…

Image of poppy

Richmond WW1 Diary 24 October 1918

| 400,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers taken prisoner In late October, Allied forces pushed the Austro-Hungarian army out of Italy, in what became the Austrian’s final battle of the war. In fierce fighting around Trentino, 30,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers were killed and 400,000 captured. As October 1918 passed, victory for the Allies looked increasingly assured. On 17 October,…

Image of poppy

Richmond WW1 Diary 7 October 1918

Independence for Poland and the Slavic states | The First World War brought an end to the European era of global empire-building that had seen colonisation in the Americas, Australasia, and Asia, and ignited the infamous Scramble for Africa. Within Europe, the loss of power by the imperial states led to smaller nations declaring their…

Image of poppy

Richmond WW1 Diary 30 September 1918

Bulgaria surrenders | On 30 September 1918, Bulgaria signed an Armistice with the Allies, the first of the Central Powers to do so. Initially neutral, Bulgaria had joined the war on the side of the Central Powers in October 1915. The government of the kingdom hoped a victory would help it expand its territory in…

Image of poppy

Richmond WW1 Diary 2 August 1918

British landing in Russia | Russia had been one of the original powers in the Triple Alliance with France and Great Britain. The new Bolsheviks regime in Russia had negotiated a ceasefire with the Central Powers – the German led alliance – at the end of 1917. The treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed in Spring…

Image of poppy

Richmond WW1 Diary 1 May 1918

May Day | In 1918, May Day embraced its modern identity as a celebration of The Workers. In newly Soviet Russia, celebrating the October Revolution of the previous year, mass parades took place in Moscow and Petrograd (St Petersburg). The celebration was somewhat muted, with the acceptance the recent Brest-Litovsk peace treaty, which had cost…