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Richmond WW1 Diary 11 November 1918

Germany signs Armistice with the Allies | The Richmond Herald reported on the announcement of peace with a message from the mayor in which he praised “our valiant men” and looked forward to a “glorious future”. The paper recounted the joyful local reaction to the news in Richmond: “Never, indeed, did news spread so rapidly, and never,…

Black & White headshot of Apollinaire

Richmond WW1 Diary 9 November 1918

Death of Guillaume Apollinaire | The writer and poet Guillaume Apollinaire was born Wilhelm Albert Wlodzimierz Apolinary Kostrowicki in Rome to Polish parents. He moved to France as a teenager and renamed himself Guillaume Apollinaire. Guillaume fought in the war until he was seriously injured by shrapnel in 1916. His collection of war poems was…

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Richmond WW1 Diary 3 November 1918

Austria sues for peace | By late 1918, the Austro-Hungarian forces were concentrated on the frontlines in northern Italy. After the capture of 400,000 Austro-Hungarian troops on 24 October, the military command began negotiations for peace. The Armistice was signed on 3 November, leaving Germany alone in the war. On 3 November 1918 German sailors…

Richmond WW1 Diary 1 November 1918

Czechoslovakia & Hungary declare independence |   At the start of the war, the Central Powers comprised Germany, the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Bulgaria joined the alliance in 1915 and became the first to surrender in September 1918. Following the Ottoman surrender at the end of October, it was clear the end of…

Richmond WW1 Diary 31 October 1918

Empires fall and the flu death-toll rises | On 30 October 1918, The Ottoman rulers signed its Armistice with the Allied nations and hostilities ended at 12-noon on 31 October. At its greatest extent, the Ottoman Empire stretched across the Middle East and North Africa, and through the Balkans into Eastern Europe. By the start…

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Richmond WW1 Diary 24 October 1918

| 400,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers taken prisoner In late October, Allied forces pushed the Austro-Hungarian army out of Italy, in what became the Austrian’s final battle of the war. In fierce fighting around Trentino, 30,000 Austro-Hungarian soldiers were killed and 400,000 captured. As October 1918 passed, victory for the Allies looked increasingly assured. On 17 October,…

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Richmond WW1 Diary 8 October 1918

The Hindenberg Line is attacked | In response to the final German push, the Spring Offensive, which lasted from March to July 1918, the Allies launched a series of attacks that became known as the Hundred Days Offensive. Ferdinand Foch, leader of the French forces, had ordered the attack at the Second Battle of the…